Dependency Injection (DI) in {{AngularJS}} – Part 16

Dependency Injection (DI) is one of the hottest terms being used in software development nowadays. Most of the application developers talking about this and try using it in their applications. One of the key reasons Agile methodology, as it is used in almost every project in one or other way and DI easily fits into this model and help in achieving its goal. I have been getting many request to write about DI in AngularJS so let’s start exploring that.

Note – This post is a part of series of posts on AngularJS and it is 16th one. Click here to view all the post. Apart from that you can also use the navigation links for next and previous post in each post at the bottom to check all. Continue reading

Learning {{AngularJS}} with Examples–Part 1


Client side programming is becoming the one of the main parts of web applications. Now a days, We are seeing the explosion of JavaScript libraries. And the reason is that some JavaScript libraries got very popular and developers took them hand to hand because of its cool features with almost negligible performance cost, Now in our projects,  count of JavaScript files (plugins and custom files) are increasing rapidly which is making it  unmanageable and unmaintainable. AngularJS provides best of the both the worlds and now a days, it is one of the most talked and used JavaScript framework in web applications. So I have thought to start a series of post on AngularJS. I’ll start from basics and gradually discuss all the features, keeping in mind the.NET Developers.  So let us start learning it. The first questions arises that

What is AngulalJS?

AngularJS is not just another JavaScript library but it provides a framework to write a proper architectured, maintainable and testable client side code. Some of the key points are

Continue reading

Join me and Learn jQuery, Node.Js and Knockout.js

Hi All,

C# Corner Delhi chapter is hosting next event  on 23rd November at Noida and Become Better JS developer in a day. This time we are discussing various hot Client side libraries jQuery, Node.js and Knockout.js. After all the session, there will be Test which results will be online. This will be a full day event with full hands on exercises etc.

Date and Timing – 23rd November 2013, 10:30 PM to 6:00 PM

Is there any fee – No. It is Absolutely free

Venue –

MCN Solutions Pvt. Ltd.
H-217, Second Floor,
Sector-63, Noida
Landmark: Behind Indian-Oil Petrol Pump
Contact No: +91-9810371053

The agenda of the day will be :

agenda

For more details and registration Click Here

Join and Learn with us.

Thanks,
Brij

JavaScript Day : Presented on Arrays in JavaScript

Hi All,

We had organized again a very successful event at C# Corner Delhi Chapter meet fifth times in a row. This was named as JavaScript Day and attended by more that 120 attendees . The entire day we discussed on Core JavaScript and we’ll cover more topics in coming monthly meet.

I discussed on JavaScript array and covered the following topics.

Continue reading

Inheritance with JavaScript

This post is in continuation in my last post.  In my last post, I discussed various ways to create custom object in JavaScript. I’ll advise you to go through that if you didn’t get a chance to have a look then you can go through it. Please find the link below

Various ways to Create custom objects in JavaScript

In this post, We will discuss, how we can use other features of Object Oriented concepts in JavaScript. Today I’ll discuss one of the main concepts of Object Orient Programming that is Inheritance.

So how can we use Inheritance with JavaScript ?

Various ways and plugins are available that provides similar ways to use Inheritance that we have used in other object oriented language. But the prototype based Inheritance is used most.

JavaScript is a object based language that is based upon Prototype based programming. It is free from Class and completely rely on objects only .

Did you hear earlier  that What is Prototype based language or what is Prototype based programming?

I would say this is just another way to provide object oriented feature by a language. As per wiki

Prototype-based programming is a style of object-oriented programming in which classes are not present, and behavior reuse (known as inheritance in class-based languages) is performed via a process of cloning existing objects that serve as prototypes. This model can also be known as classless, prototype-oriented or instance-based programming. Delegation is the language feature that supports prototype-based programming”.

So let’s start learning. To create a Class in JavaScript, we are required to create a function  that we also used to call a Constructor. I’ll use the word constructor in my further discussion. So Let’s create a Constructor called person

         function Person() {
             this.ToString = function () { alert('I am a Person'); }
             this.DisplayResidence = function () { alert('I stay near my office'); }
         }

As in my last post, I mentioned that Person is a nested function. As you can see that here we have following two functions in the Person constructor.

  1. ToString
  2. DisplayResidence

So let’s create a new object and display it

function DisplayObject()
{
var objPerson = new Person(); // Line- 1 Creates the instance of Person
objPerson.ToString();  // Line- 2
objPerson.DisplayResidence(); // Line- 3
}

Here both display as expected . Line 2 – I am a Person and Line 3 – I stay near my office

Now let’s say we want to create a constructor Employee as

         function Employee() {
             this.ToString = function () { alert('I am an employee'); }
             this.DisplayRole = function () { alert('My role is development and implementation'); }
         }

As you can see it has two methods ToString and DisplayRole. Now how can Employee inherit the properties/methods of Person. It can be done by writing as

Employee.prototype = new Person();

Now the employee has the properties of person as well. Now it has three methods

  • ToString()
  • DisplayResidence()
  • DisplayRole()

Let’s examine it by the method

         function DisplayObject() {
                var objPerson = new Person(); // Line- 1: Calles constrouctor Person to create an instance and assign it to objPerson
                objPerson.ToString(); // Line- 2: Calles ToString method of Person
                objPerson.DisplayResidence(); // Line- 3: Calles ToString method of Person

                var objEmployee = new Employee();  // Line- 4: Calles constrouctor Employee to create an instance and assign it to objEmployee
                objEmployee.ToString(); // Line- 5: Calles ToString method of Person
                objEmployee.DisplayResidence(); // Line- 6:  Calles ToString method of Person
                objEmployee.DisplayRole(); // Line- 7:  Calles ToString method of Person

                alert(objPerson instanceof Person);  // Line- 8:  Checks the type of objPerson
                alert(objEmployee instanceof Person);  // Line- 9:  Checks the type of objEmployee
         }

Let’s discuss it by Line numbers

Line 2 and Line 3- same as discussed above

Line 5- What it will display ? It displays I am an employee because ToString is available at both current and parent. But because the objEmployee holds the instance of derived class so the overridden method is called.

Line 6- Here DisplayResidence is not defined in Employee so it calls the base class(Person) method and displayed.

Line 7-  DisplayRole is added in Employee object only and it shows ‘My role is development and implementation‘.

Line 8 – To check more on the type I added the last two lines. As objPerson is instance of Person only so it shows true.

Line 9 – As Employee inherits Person so it also shows true but if you delete the below line ….

<br />Employee.prototype = new Person();<br />

then it’ll show false as it does not inherit person any more.

Now you must have got enough Idea about prototype based inheritance in JavaScript.

There is one more way to add a method to and existing constructor as Person has two methods and  that we defined as nested class. You can write that in the following way as well

         function Person() {
         }
         Person.prototype.ToString = function () { alert('I am a Person'); }
         Person.prototype.DisplayResidence = function () {alert('I stay near my office');}

Now the question arises,  how Inheritance works in JavaScript.

Whenever we create an instance using the new Operator, It creates all the properties/methods and also has internally a variable called __proto__ (double underscore at both side) this is the variable which is responsible for the inheritance feature. So let’s say I created a instance of Employee as

var objEmployee = new Employee();

It’ll be having two methods/properties as defined and on __proto__ as

  1. ToString
  2. DisplayRole
  3. __proto__

Just because I have written also as

Employee.prototype = new Person();

The __proto__ variable gets assigned to the person instance. This __proto__ used to determine the prototype chain and return the property values. This allows us to access the base class methods and public properties.

As I talked about prototype chain, means as soon as I assign

Employee.prototype = new Person();

a __proto__ variable gets available to us that can be be further used for inheritance. So lets create another constructor as

         function TeamLead() {
             this.ToString = function () { alert('I am a Manager.'); }
             this.DisplayRole = function () { alert('I rarely code but do lot of code reviews'); }
             this.DisplayMeetings = function () { alert('I have 3 meetings scheduled daily'); }
         }

Now as soon as I’ll create an instance using new operator then instance will be have the properties

  1. ToString
  2. DisplayRole
  3. DisplayMeetings
  4. __proto__

Now if we write the code for inheritance as

TeamLead.prototype = new Employee();

It can access all the properties in the hierarchies. We can check the type of instances as

 function DisplayObject() {
             var objTeamLead = new TeamLead();
             alert(objTeamLead instanceof Person);  // returns true because TeamLead inherits base class Person
             alert(objTeamLead instanceof Employee);  // returns true because TeamLead inherits  base class Employee
             alert(objTeamLead instanceof TeamLead); // returns true as expected
             }

You can see the results and they are expected

Let’s see the prototype chain as discussed earlier

         function DisplayObject() {
             var objTeamLead = new TeamLead();

             // Also here I'll show, How the prototype chain works
             alert(objTeamLead.__proto__ == TeamLead.prototype); // returns true because it represents the same prototype
             alert(objTeamLead.__proto__.__proto__ == Employee.prototype);  // returns true because second level __proto__ belongs to Employee.prototype
             alert(objTeamLead.__proto__.__proto__.__proto__ == Person.prototype);  // returns true because third level __proto__ belongs to Employee.prototype
         }

As you can see that actually __proto__ variable is actually the key for the inheritance.

Now you all must have got enough Idea about Prototype based programming and how we can use inheritance with JavaScript.

Do share your feedback.

Happy Coding,
Brij

Various ways to Create custom objects in JavaScript

Hi All,

Many developers still put their data at client side in multiple variables and some times it becomes very tough to manage them. If we store the data in object format then it becomes very easy to manage and control it. We can have similar model as we use at server side, it provides consistency of the data model in our application.

So today we’ll see various ways to store the data in Object format at Client side.

A Simple way:

We can create a normal object and can encapsulate related data in a single object. To create  a simple object, you just need to assign a variable with new Object() and create the properties according to our requirement and assign the values as

 var person = new Object();
 person.FirstName = "Brij";
 person.LastName = "Mishra";
 person.Age = 27;

This is a simple object with few properties like FirstName, LastName and Age. You can read the object as

function displayObject() {
      alert(person.FirstName + " " + person.LastName);
      alert("Age: " + person.Age);
}

Here as you can see it is an object which contains the details of an person but here we didn’t define any class (as we do in C#) then we create an object assign some values in that. But we just created a object and created properties on the fly. Now obviously, while reading the object, you  might not get any intellisense on some editor and we need to remember the name of the properties. And if we wrongly typed the property name then we’ll get an error at run time.

Because JavaScript is loosely coupled language. There is no way if we create similar object and check whether they are similar type of object. Also it is impossible to identify  the object that you are using is actually of what type.

But there are more standard ways to Create a Type. We’ll discuss in coming section. First, we are going to discuss

Closure
Closure is function that encapsulate a class. Actually closure is not a normal function but it contains other functions and you can say it is a nested function. Inner functions actually constitutes its properties and methods. It provides an elegant way to create multiple instances of a type like person. It provides exactly similar behavior like class and object. Let’s create a closure

        function Person(fisrtName, lastName, age) {
            var _firstName = fisrtName;
            var _lastName = lastName;
            var _age = age;

            this.set_FirstName = function (fisrtName) {
                _firstName = fisrtName;
            }
            this.get_FirstName = function () {
                return _firstName;
            }
            this.set_LastName = function (lastName) {
                _lastName = lastName;
            }
            this.get_LastName = function () {
                return _lastName;
            }
            this.set_Age = function (age) {
                _age = age;
            }
            this.get_Age = function () {
                return _age;
            }
        }

Now let’s use the person and person instantiate it. As you can see that it is taking three parameters, fisrtName, lastName and age. So you need pass the values while instantiating it. Using it, you can create an instance similar like C# as

function DisplayClosure() {
        function DisplayClosure() {
            var person = new NewPerson("Brij", "Mishra", 27);

            alert(person.get_FirstName() + " " + person.get_LastName());
            alert("Age: " + person.get_Age());

            person.set_FirstName("Rahul");
            person.set_LastName("Khanna");
            person.set_Age("30");

            alert(person.get_FirstName() + " " + person.get_LastName());
            alert("Age: " + person.get_Age());
        }

So you can see, How I created instance. I have created a setter and getter to set and get the properties.

Lets’s discuss another way.

Prototype:

Prototypes provides another way to create custom objects in JavaScript. Every JavaScript object has public prototype property . This actually exposes the public interface of the object. Using this feature, we can add some public properties and methods to a JavaScript object. Let’s see it with example

        Person = function (firstName, lastName, age) {
            this._firstName = firstName;
            this._lastName = lastName;
            this._age = age;

            Person.prototype.set_FirstName = function (firstName) {
                this._firstName = firstName;
            }
            Person.prototype.get_FirstName = function () {
                return this._firstName;
            }
            Person.prototype.set_LastName = function (lastName) {
                this._lastName = lastName;
            }
            Person.prototype.get_LastName = function () {
                return this._lastName;
            }
            Person.prototype.set_Age = function (age) {
                this._age = age;
            }
            Person.prototype.get_Age = function () {
                return this._age;
            }
        }

So you can see that person is assigned to a function which is actually also a nested function but it is uses prototype property of an object. Lets instantiate it and check it.

function DisplayClosure() {
        function DisplayClosure() {
            var person = new NewPerson("Brij", "Mishra", 27);

            alert(person.get_FirstName() + " " + person.get_LastName());
            alert("Age: " + person.get_Age());

            person.set_FirstName("Rahul");
            person.set_LastName("Khanna");
            person.set_Age("30");

            alert(person.get_FirstName() + " " + person.get_LastName());
            alert("Age: " + person.get_Age());
        }

So you can see that this also is used in the similar way as Closure.
So what are the benefits of prototypes over closure. There are many..

  • Prototypes provide better support for Intellisense and debugging.
  • Prototypes also provide better performance in several browsers.
  • Prototypes support reflection and that’s why used a lot in ASP.NET AJAX.
  • Closure does not create an instance, it just specialized members to your object. instanceof does not work with Closure. While Prototype configured once then copied to every instance created using new.

Hope you all like it.

Cheers,
Brij